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Final Fantasy

Final Fantasy logo 1990
Final Fantasy logo 1990
(North America version, Nintendo)
Original name: "Fighting Fantasy"

Name: "Final Fantasy"

Category: Video games

Subcategory: Role-playing

Genre: Fantasy

Final Fantasy logo 1987
Final Fantasy logo 1987
(Japan version, Square)
Inventor: Hironobu Sakaguchi

Developer: Square Co., Ltd. - Japan

--- December 18, 1987 - Japan
--- July 12, 1990 - North America

--- Square Co., Ltd. - Japan
--- Nintendo of America Inc. - NA

--- Family Computer (Famicom)
--- Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

Producer: Masafumi Miyamoto

Designers: Hironobu Sakaguchi, Hiromichi Tanaka, Akitoshi Kawazu, Koichi Ishii, Kiyoshi Yoshii, Ken Narita, Kazuko Shibuya

Programmer: Nasir Gebelli

Graphics: Yoshitaka Amano

Writers: Hironobu Sakaguchi, Kenji Terada, Akitoshi Kawazu

Number of players: Single-player

Background and characters: «An evil shroud covers the world in darkness. You must restore the powers of earth, wind, fire and water to the Four Orbs. Create your own band of 4 Light Warriors from fighters, thieves, martial artists, and magicians. You'll need all their skills to triumph in this massive role-playing adventure. Your treacherous journey takes you to all parts of a strange new world. Explore dangerous castles and dark caverns where deadly perils, and great rewards await at every turn. Hundreds of ferocious monsters block your path. With patience, skill, and cunning you can defeat them. Come, begin your quest. Enter an enchanted new World. Command your warriors! Prepare to face the Final Fantasy! A world shrouded in the darkness of evil. Your mission – to restore the light». (From the North America version, 1990, back cover).

Music by: Nobuo Uematsu

Features: Final Fantasy, known as Final Fantasy I or FF1 in re-releases, was the first role-playing game in Square's Final Fantasy series, created by Hironobu Sakaguchi. For detailed features and game mode refer to the "Explorer's Handbook" below.

Interesting facts: The creator of the Final Fantasy series Hironobu Sakaguchi proposed the role-playing game (RPG) to his employer Square, but the company approved the launch only after the success of the RPG Dragon Quest by Enix. The team of developers wanted a title that had a simple abbreviation in the Latin alphabet (FF) and a four-syllable abbreviated Japanese pronunciation ("efu efu"); the first name proposed for the video game was "Fighting Fantasy", but it was already taken by a tabletop game, so they decided to call it "Final Fantasy". Final Fantasy was first released in 1987 in Japan by Square, and then Nintendo of America translated the game into English and published it in North America in 1990.

Slogan (North America version, 1990, box): «Enter a whole new realm of challenge and adventure.» (front) - «Dragons and broadswords, mystery and adventure. Final Fantasy has them all!» (back)

Property: Square Co., Ltd. - Nintendo Co., Ltd.

Product website:

Final Fantasy 1987 front cover
Final Fantasy box, front cover (Japan version, Square 1987, by illustrator Yoshitaka Amano)

Final Fantasy 1987 back cover
Final Fantasy box, back cover (Japan version, Square 1987)

Final Fantasy 1987 box
Final Fantasy box (Japan version, Square 1987)

Final Fantasy 1987 cartridge
Final Fantasy cartridge (Japan version, Square 1987)

Final Fantasy ad Square 1987
Final Fantasy advertisement 1987
Final Fantasy launch 1987
Final Fantasy advertisement with developers 1987
Final Fantasy advertising (Japan version, Square 1987)

Final Fantasy 1987 screenshots
Final Fantasy screenshots (Japan version, Square 1987)

Final Fantasy intro (Japan version, Square 1987)

Final Fantasy gameplay (Japan version, Square 1987)

Final Fantasy 1990 front cover
Final Fantasy box, front cover (North America version, Nintendo 1990)

Final Fantasy 1990 back cover
Final Fantasy box, back cover (North America version, Nintendo 1990)

Final Fantasy 1990 cartridge
Final Fantasy cartridge (North America version, Nintendo 1990)

Final Fantasy 1990 handbook and maps
Final Fantasy "Explorer's Handbook" and maps in Pdf (North America version, Nintendo 1990)

Hironobu Sakaguchi
Hironobu Sakaguchi (Nov. 25, 1962), video game developer, creator of the Final Fantasy series

Final Fantasy 30th Anniversary 2017
Square Enix celebrate Final Fantasy's 30th Anniversary (1987-2017). With 87 titles, the series was awarded the "most prolific RPG series" by the Guinness World Records in 2017.


Ryanair logo 1985
Ryanair logo 1985
--- "Danren Enterprises" (Nov. 28, 1984)
--- "Ryanair" (since 1985)

Category: Transportation

Subcategory: Airlines

Founded: Nov. 28, 1984 - Dublin, Ireland

--- Christopher Ryan
--- Tony Ryan
--- Liam Lonergan

Operations start: July 8, 1985

Features: Ryanair began operations on July 8, 1985 with daily flights on a 15-seater EMB 110 Embraer Bandeirante turboprop aircraft, from Waterford to London Gatwick. First cabin crew recruits must be less than 5ft. 2ins. tall in order to be able to operate in the tiny cabin of the aircraft. The 90-minute flight, Waterford's first international scheduled air service, departed at 8.30am, with the return flight departing from Gatwick at 7pm. On May 23, 1986 Rayanair launched a second route Dublin - London Luton, operated by two 46-seater BAE748 turboprop aircraft.

Interesting facts: In 1975, Irish businessman Tony Ryan founded Guinness Peat Aviation (GPA), a commercial aircraft sales and leasing company based in Shannon, Ireland. During the 1980s the company became the world's largest commercial aircraft lessor, but in early '90s economic depression undermined this commercial success, the company over-reached itself, and in 1992 it ran into debt problems. Ryan lost control of the company; however, in 1985 he had already launched a little airline, Ryanair (named after him), with co-founders Christopher "Christy" Ryan, godfather to Tony's second son Declan and worker at GPA on the sales team, and Liam Lonergan, owner of Irish travel agent Club Travel. With a share capital of just £1, and a staff of 25, they began to charter a 15-seater aircraft to bring small groups on business and leisure trips between Waterford and London Gatwick. In 1986, Ryanair obtained permission from the regulatory authorities to challenge the British Airways and Aer Lingus' high fare duopoly on the Dublin-London route; services were launched with two 46-seater aircraft. The launch fare of £99 return was less than half the price of the British Airways and Aer Lingus lowest return fare of £209. With two routes in operation, Ryanair carries 82,000 passengers in its first full year in operation. Thirty years later, in 2016, Ryanair was the largest European airline by scheduled passengers flown, and carried more international passengers than any other airline.

Property: Ryanair

Official website:

Ryanair announcement 1985
Ryanair getting ready to begin operations (announcement: Flight International magazine, June 22, 1985)

Ryanair, first aircraft 1985
Ryanair's Bandeirante 1985
Ryanair, first aircraft operated by the company (July 8, 1985). Ryanair's first route Waterford - London Gatwick was operated by a 15-seater EMB 110 Embraer Bandeirante turboprop aircraft.

Ryanair inaugural flight video 1985
Ryanair inaugural flight - video (July 8, 1985). Click the image to see the clip (1 min.) archived by RTÉ.ie, Raidió Teilifís Éireann, Ireland's National Public Service Broadcaster.

Ryanair's timetable 1986 - front
Ryanair's timetable 1986 - back
Ryanair, early timetable (January-March 1986)

Ryanair announcement 1986
Ryanair getting ready to launch the second route (announcement: Flight International magazine, May 10, 1986)

Ryanair, secound route departure 1986
Ryanair's BAE748, 1986
Ryanair, second aircraft operated by the company (May 23, 1986). Ryanair's second route Dublin - London Luton was operated by two 46-seater BAE748 turboprop aircraft, known as "The Spirit of Ireland".

Ryanair founders: Christopher Ryan, Tony Ryan, Liam Lonergan.
Ryanair founders: Christopher "Christy" Ryan (left), Thomas Anthony "Tony" Ryan (center), and Liam Lonergan (right).

Ryanair 30th Anniversary 1985-2015
Ryanair 30th Anniversary (1985-2015). Ryanair celebrate 30 years looking back at travel with Ryanair in 1985 compared to 2015.

Yomiuri Shimbun

Yomiuri Shimbun logo
Yomiuri Shimbun logo
Name: "Yomiuri Shimbun"

Category: Newspapers

--- Takashi Koyasu
--- Morimichi Motono
--- Shôkichi Shibata

First issue: November 2, 1874 - Toranomon, Minato, Tokyo, Japan

First editor: Takashi Koyasu

Takashi Koyasu
Takashi Koyasu (1836-1898), Industrialist, founder of Nisshusha company in 1870 (changed to The Yomiuri Shimbun since December 1, 1917) and founder of the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper in 1874 with co-founders Morimichi Motono and Shôkichi Shibata.
Overview: In 1870 Japanese Industrialist Takashi Koyasu established the letterpress printing company "Nisshusha" in Yokohama, with the former First Secretary of Foreign Affairs Morimichi Motono and the interpreter Shokichi Shibata, and published an English-Japanese dictionary.
In 1874 they launched the "Yomiuri Shimbun" in Toranomon, Minato, Tokyo: the name literally means "sell by reading newspaper", and refers to the newspaper sellers of Edo period (1603-1868). Yomiuri Shimbun was one of five new dailies created early in the Meiji period (1868–1912) to meet the need for a vernacular newspaper in the rapidly modernizing society of Japan. It became popular among the general public for its easy-to-read style, and in the following year its circulation had grown from 200 every other day to more than 10,000; by 1877 it had exceeded 33,400. In the beginning, the Yomiuri Shimbun published literature, novel translations, and some famous writers such as Kôyô Ozaki. In 1914 the Yomiuri Shimbun creates "Yomiuri Fujin Furoku", a page dedicated to articles for women, the first in Japanese newspapers. On September 1, 1923, the new Yomiuri Shimbun's head office building, located at Ginza 3-chome, was destroyed in Great Kanto Earthquake; in 1945, just before the end of World War II, an air raid burnt down headquarters building a second time; but Yomiuri Shimbun flourished again by building a strong national sales network.

Property: The Yomiuri Shimbun - Yomiuri Group

Official website:

Yomiuri Shimbun first issue 1874 - front
Yomiuri Shimbun first issue 1874 - back
Yomiuri Shimbun first issue front back (November 2, 1874)

Yomiuri Shimbun, first photo 1888
Yomiuri Shimbun was the first Japanese newspaper to carry a news photo (August 7, 1888). The image, printed using asphalt copperplate, shows the lake Inawashito immediately after the eruption of Mt. Bandai, Fukushima Prefecture.

Yomiuri Shimbun, Konjiki Yasha 1897
Yomiuri Shimbun begins serialization of Ozaki Kôyô's novel "Konjiki Yasha" - The Golden Demon (January 1, 1897)

Yomiuri Shimbun issue 10,000 - April 8, 1905
Yomiuri Shimbun issue No. 10,000 (April 8, 1905)

Yomiuri Fujin Furoku, 1914
Yomiuri Shimbun was the first Japanese newspaper to introduce pages devoted to women's interests (April 3, 1914). Originally called "Yomiuri Fujin Furoku", these pages evolved into a Lifestyle section.

Yomiuri Shimbun Building and issue No. 50,000
Left: Yomiuri Shimbun celebrate their 140th anniversary (1874-2014) starting operations from the Yomiuri Shimbun Building, their new headquarters in Tokyo's central Otemachi district. Right: Yomiuri Shimbun issue No. 50,000 (April 9, 2015).
In 2010, in the Britain's Guinness Book of World Records, the Yomiuri Shimbun was credited with having the highest circulation in the world, and with being the only newspaper to have a morning circulation in excess of 10 million copies: the morning edition had a circulation of 10,020,584, while the evening edition had a circulation of 3,516,692, producing a combined figure of 13,537,276; with an average of 2.5 readers per copy, this results in a total readership of 25,051,460 per day.

Princess Cruises

Princess Cruises logo 1965
Princess Cruises
logo 1965
Name: "Princess Cruises"

Category: Transportation

Subcategory: Shipping

Founded: Nov. 14, 1965 - Seattle, Washington, USA

Founder / First president: Stanley B. McDonald

Operations start: December 3, 1965

Features: Founded in 1965, Princess Cruises began operations on December 3, 1965, carrying 400 passengers aboard the "Princess Patricia" Turbo-Electric Vessel from Los Angeles to Mexico, calling at La Paz, Puerto Vallarta, Acapulco and Mazatlan. In 1967 they chartered a more specific cruise ship, "Princess Italia", and in 1968 the third "Princess Carla" ship, thus continuing the series of Mexican Riviera cruises. In June 1969 Princess Cruises inaugurated the first series of summer cruises to Alaska.

Interesting facts: In 1962 entrepreneur Stanley B. McDonald bought a ship, the cruise vessel "Yarmouth", to operate as a hotel at the World's Fair in Seattle, where his company Air Mac provided all the ground transportation equipment; the ship sailed from San Francisco to Victoria B.C., then down to the fair for a 10-day cruise. For four days of the cruise the ship was used as a hotel while people onboard visited the fair. This experience inspired McDonald to try a new businness, so in 1965 he decided to found Princess Cruises.
The popular American television series "The Love Boat", aired on the ABC Television Network from 1977 to 1986, was set aboard many of Princess' ships in destinations around the globe; the two ships featured heavily were "Pacific Princess" and "Island Princess". To celebrate their 50th Anniversary, on December 3, 2015 Princess Cruises reunited The Love Boat cast aboard Pacific Princess in the Port of Los Angeles.

Quote (Stanley B. McDonald): «The call of the "Mexican Riviera" was coined by our people as I remember. Now everyone refers to it as the Mexican Riviera».

Property: Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd.

Official website:

Canadian Pacific Princess Cruises brochure 1965 - cover
Canadian Pacific Princess Cruises brochure 1965
Princess Cruises before Princess Cruises (summer 1965). This brochure offered 7-days summer cruises in Alaska - from May to August, from Vancouver to Skagway and return - aboard Canadian Pacific's "Princess Patricia", the first ship chartered by Stanley McDonald in the fall of the same year to start his businness. The Princess Patricia was a very popular, reliable ship: despite its tiny size, it had eight sumptuous wood-paneled suites with large living rooms, a large selection of outside upper/lower berth cabins, and outdoor activities included shuffleboard played atop decks.

Princess Cruises - Princess Patricia 1965
Princess Patricia, the first ship operated by Princess Cruises, docked in Vancouver during the first Princess Cruises management. On December 3, 1965, Princess Patricia's first cruise took 400 passengers from Los Angeles to Mexico, calling at La Paz, Puerto Vallarta, Acapulco and Mazatlan, thus inaugurating the first series of 14-day cruises to Mexico, until april 1966. This Turbo-Electric Vessel, 6,082-ton, 356-by-56 foot, built in Scotland 1949 and converted to cruise liner in Canada 1963, returned under the Princess banner for a second Mexican Riviera cruise in winter 1966/67, before being left to the exclusive management of its owner Canadian Pacific. Demolished in Taiwan 1995.

Princess Cruises brochures 1965/1966
Princess Cruises brochures (1965/66)

Princess Cruises - Princess Italia 1967
Princess Italia, the second ship operated by Princess Cruises, in Acapulco (1967, under charter to Princess but still with Oltremare's triangle funnel logo). Princess Italia made her maiden departure from Los Angeles on December 15, 1967. This cruise ship, 12,083-ton, 489-by-68 feet, 452 passenger plus 240 crew, was built in Italy 1967 as "Italia" for Crociere d’Oltremare, then chartered by Costa Lines and subchartered to Princess Cruises, who marketed her as "Princess Italia", but never officially renamed her. On June 3, 1969 Princess Italia was also used for the first Alaskan cruise from San Francisco. Demolished in Gujarat, India 2012.

Princess Cruises logo 1968
Princess Cruises introduce their iconic "Seawitch" logo (1968)

Princess Cruises - Princess Carla 1968
Princess Cruises - Princess Carla 1968 docked
Princess Carla, the third ship operated by Princess Cruises (1968). Princess Carla made her maiden departure from Los Angeles on December 19, 1968; it was the first vessel to carry the iconic "Seawitch" funnel logo. This cruise ship, 20,469-ton, 600-by-80 feet, 452 passenger, was built in France 1951 as "Flandre" for French Line, then sold in 1967 to the Italian firm Costa Cruises, who renamed her "Carla C". In 1968 the ship was chartered to Princess Cruises, who marketed her as "Princess Carla", but never officially renamed her. Demolished in Turkey 1994.

Princess Cruises advertisement 1968
Princess Cruises advertisement (1968, Princess Italia and Princess Carla cruises)

Princess Cruises brochures 1970/1971/1972
Princess Cruises brochures (1970/71/72)

Princess Cruises - Stanley B. McDonald
Stanley B. McDonald (Alberta, October 13, 1920 – Seattle, November 20, 2014), entrepreneur, founder of Princess Cruises

Princess Cruises 50th Anniversary - Pacific Princess 2015
Princess Cruises 50th Anniversary (1965-2015). On December 3, 2015, Princess Cruises celebrated their 50 years recreating the exact route of the cruise line's original Princess Patricia's maiden voyage (December 3, 1965) - from Los Angeles to Mexico - on board the 30,277-ton Pacific Princess (above).