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Moto Guzzi: 1st model ever

Moto Guzzi logo 1921
Moto Guzzi logo 1921
Prototype name: "G.P. 500"

First model name: "Normale"

Category: Motorcycles

Subcategory: Standard

Prototype designers: Carlo Guzzi and his brother Giuseppe

First model developers: Carlo Guzzi with his brother Giuseppe, and Giorgio Parodi with his cousin Angelo

Producer: Moto Guzzi (founded on March 15, 1921 as "Società Anonima Moto Guzzi" in Genoa, Italy, by Emanuele Vittorio Parodi, his son Giorgio Parodi, and Carlo Guzzi)

Prototype made in: 1919/20

Production start: 1921 - Mandello Tonzanico (now Mandello del Lario), Lecco, Italy

Discontinued: 1924

First price: 8,500 ITL

Prototype features: Horizontal four-strokes 500 cc. single-cyclinder engine characterized the first Moto Guzzi motorcycles, since the 1919/20 "G.P." ("Guzzi-Parodi") prototype. Seeking to eliminate hand-pumped lubrication systems and exposed primary drive chains, Guzzi cast the engine in aluminium as a unit with the three-speed gearbox. Its helical-gear primary drive and considerably oversquare engine dimensions (88 x 82 mm. bore and stroke) deviated from what was normal for the period. Laying the engine horizontal in the frame aided engine cooling, which also allowed for a low-slung chassis, while the geared primary drive saw the engine rotate in the reverse direction, another unused feature at the time. To smooth out vibration and enable a more compact crankcase unit, a large (280 mm.) flywheel was mounted externally. The lubrication system was exceptionally advanced, with an oil pump driven from the camshaft; this supplied oil to an external tank that was mounted in the air stream. The cyclinder head design employed aeronautical engineering techniques, with four parallel overhead valves operated by an overhead camshaft and driven by a shaft and bevel gears. Compression was a modest 3.5 : 1 and, with 12 horsepower, the prototype was capable of 62 miles per hour. The chassis had a tubular frame with twin front downtubes, an unsprung rear bolted triangle, and a girder fork and dual springs at the front.

First model features: Name: Moto Guzzi "Normale". Engine Type: four-stroke horizontal single. Bore/stroke: 88 x 82 mm. Displacement: 498.4 cc. Power: 8 HP at 3,200 RPM to 8.5 HP at 3,400 RPM. Compression ratio 4.0 : 1. Valves: Side inlet, overhead exhaust. Carburetion system: Amac 15 PSY 1 in. Gears: Hand-change 3-speed. Ignition: Bosch ZE 1 shielded magneto. Frame: Tubular duplex cradle. Front suspension: Girder fork. Rear suspension: Rigid. Wheels: 26 x 2¼. Tires: 26 x 3.00. Brakes: Expansion rear wheel. Wheelbase: 1,380 mm. Dry weight: 130 Kg. Top speed: 85 Km/h. Production: 2,065.

Interesting facts: The "Moto Guzzi Società Anonima" was established in Genoa, Italy, on March 15, 1921, with its headquarters in Mandello Tonzanico (now Mandello del Lario), Lecco. The three founders were: shipowner Emanuele Vittorio Parodi, his son Giorgio, and Carlo Guzzi, a former comrade in the Italian airforce. The emblem, a spread-winged eagle, was chosen in memory of their friend Giovanni Ravelli, a pilot who died on August 11, 1919 during a test flight. Carlo Guzzi's first horizontal four-strokes 500 cc. single-cyclinder engine estabilished a unique formula that immediately characterized Moto Guzzi motorcycles. The prototype, developed by Carlo and his older brother Giuseppe in 1919/20, was called the "G.P.", for "Guzzi-Parodi". The G.P. soon evolved into the production "Normale", which was announced in the December 1920 issue of "Motociclismo" magazine. The Normale appeared early the following year. While the G.P. had been a pure expression of Carlo Guzzi's engineering, economic necessity saw the Normale incorporating several updates, including the replacement of the exotic four-valve cylinder head and bevel-gear-driven overhead camshaft. With the appearance of the Normale, the company was estabilished, with the senior Parodi served as president. In addition to Carlo Guzzi and Giorgio Parodi, two other engineers were also involved: Carlo's Brother Giuseppe and Giorgio's cousin Angelo. While the total production of 1921 was a modest seventeen motorcycles, it was the beginning for one of the greatest italian motorcycles marque, and also one of the longest lived.

Property: © Moto Guzzi S.p.A. - © Piaggio & C. S.p.A.

Producer website:

Moto Guzzi G.P. 500 prototype review 1920
Moto Guzzi G.P. 500 prototype, announcement ("Motociclismo" magazine, Dec. 15, 1920)

Moto Guzzi G.P. 500 prototype - 1919-1920 - right
Moto Guzzi G.P. 500 prototype - 1919-1920 - left
Moto Guzzi G.P. 500 prototype (1919/20)

Moto Guzzi Normale 1920 - right/A
Moto Guzzi Normale 1920 - left/A
Moto Guzzi Normale 1920 - right/B
Moto Guzzi Normale 1920 - left/B
Moto Guzzi Normale, the first Moto Guzzi motorcycle (1921)

Moto Guzzi Normale engine - left
Moto Guzzi Normale engine - front
Moto Guzzi Normale engine - right
Moto Guzzi Normale engine (1921 - replica)

Moto Guzzi founders
Moto Guzzi founders. Left: Emanuele Vittorio Parodi (Genoa, ? - April 13, 1945), entrepreneur. Center: his son Giorgio Parodi (Venice, 1897 - Genoa, August 18, 1955), aviator. Right: Carlo Guzzi (Milan, November 4, 1889 - Davos, November 3, 1964), designer.

Moto Guzzi 95th anniversary 2016
Moto Guzzi celebrate the 95th anniversary (1921-2016) with a special edition of the Moto Guzzi Open House at the historical Mandello del Lario factory, 9 to 11 September 2016.


Winston design 1954
Winston design
Name: "Winston"

Category: Tobacco

Subcategory: Cigarettes

First producer: R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (founded by Richard Joshua Reynolds in 1875)

Production start: 1954 - Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA

Overview: Winston cigarette was introduced in 1954 by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, the same manufacturer that launched the well known Camel cigarettes in 1913, and quickly became one of the top selling cigarette brands. The brand was named after its productions region Winston–Salem, North Carolina, USA. Winston cigarettes were first introduced in the New England area in March; shortly thereafter they were offered in the New York metropolitan market and gradually the distribution was extended to the other parts of the country. The famous advertising slogan for this brand was "Winston tastes good - like a cigarette should!": it was a long lasting slogan that showed up in newspapers, magazines, radio, and TV advertisements for Winston cigarettes from the brand's launch in 1954 until 1972.

Slogan (1954): «Winston tastes good - like a cigarette should!»

Property: © R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company - © ITG Brands LLC - © Japan Tobacco Inc.

Product website:

Winston packaging 1954
Winston pack 1954
Winston cigarettes, first packaging (1954)

Winston advertisement 1954 - couple - A
Winston advertisement 1954 - couple - B
Winston cigarettes advertisements (1954)

Winston advertisement 1955 - couple - A
Winston advertisement 1955 - couple - B
Winston advertisement 1955 - couple - C
Winston cigarettes advertisements (1955)

Winston advertisement 1957 - comic strip - A
Winston advertisement 1957 - comic strip - B
Winston advertisement 1957 - comic strip - C
Winston cigarettes comic strips advertising (1957)

Winston cigarettes, animated and live action commercials (1954 to 1957)

Winston cigarette Anniversary editions
Winston cigarettes Anniversary editions. Left: 40 years, USA 1994. Center: 50 years, Romania 2004. Right: 60 years, Belarus 2014.


Wikipedia logo 2001
Wikipedia logo 2001
Name: "Wikipedia"

Category: Internet

Subcategory: Online encyclopedias

--- January 12, 2001 (
--- January 13, 2001 (

Official release: January 15, 2001

Developers / Founders:
--- Jimmy Wales
--- Larry Sanger

Programming languages: LAMP platform (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP)

Features: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia with the aim to allow anyone to edit articles. The name "Wikipedia" is a portmanteau of "wiki" (software that provides collaborative modification of its content and structure directly from the web browser) and "encyclopedia". Wikipedia was initially conceived as a feeder project for the Nupedia, a free online encyclopedia born ten months earlier.
The idea of creating a publicly editable encyclopedia without an editorial process (unlike Nupedia), combined with the new strategy of using the wiki platform, was the key to its success. In January 2001 Wikipedia was launched as a single English-language, and its early contributors came from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Early in Wikipedia's development, it began to expand internationally, with the creation of new namespaces, each with a distinct set of usernames. The first subdomain created for a non-English Wikipedia was "" (March 16, 2001). By the end of 2001, Wikipedia had grown to approximately 20,000 articles and 18 language editions.

Interesting facts: In 1996, American internet entrepreneurs Jimmy Wales (later Wikipedia's co-founder), Tim Shell, and Michael Davis founded Bomis, a web-advertising portal. In 2000 Jimmy Wales hired Larry Sanger (later second Wikipedia's founder), a graduate philosophy student, to help him develop the first project about a free online encyclopedia built by volunteers: Nupedia went online in March of that year, supported by Bomis' resources. Nupedia was characterized by an extensive peer-review process, designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to that of professional encyclopedias; so Wales and Sanger discussed various ways to create content more rapidly. A computer programmer named Ben Kovitz suggest Sanger to introduce the so-called "wiki" platform, a software that allows publishers to contribute simultaneously and incrementally. In five days: this new project was proposed on the Nupedia mailing list, Sanger gave it a name, domain names ".com" and ".org" were registered, and on Monday 15 January 2001 Wikipedia was formally announced. Two days later an appeal for volunteers to engage in content creation was made by Sanger to the Nupedia mailing list, and the project began to receive its first participants.

Slogan (2001): «The Free Encyclopedia"

Property: © Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.


Nupedia announces Wikipedia
Wikipedia, first announcement on the home page of its predecessor Nupedia (January 17, 2001). «Finally, we'd like to announce a fun project loosely associated with Nupedia, Wikipedia. Have a look and write a paragraph or two!» Nupedia, launched on March 9, 2000, had a seven-step approval process to control content of articles before being posted, rather than live wiki-based updating, and authors were expected to have expert knowledge. Before it ceased operating (September 26, 2003), only 25 articles were approved and published.

Larry Sanger announces Wikipedia
Wikipedia, announcement by co-founder Larry Sanger on Nupedia mailing list (January 17, 2001): «Wikipedia is up! Humor me. Go there and add a little article. It will take all of five or ten minutes. --Larry».

Wikipedia, first home page 2001
Wikipedia, first home page (screenshot March 31, 2001). Eleven weeks after launch, the introduction reads: «Welcome to Wikipedia! We're writing a complete encyclopedia from scratch, collaboratively. We started work in January 2001. We've got over 3,000 pages already. We want to make over 100,000. So, let's get to work! Write a little (or a lot) about you know!»

Wikipedia, first two logos 2001
Wikipedia, first two logos (2001, left January, right December). Wikipedia's first logo was an image that was originally submitted by Bjørn Smestad for a Nupedia logo competition which took place in 2000. The logo included a quote from the preface of "Euclid and his Modern Rivals" by Lewis Carroll. The second logo was chosen in the first Wikipedia logo contest, which took place from November to December 2001, from a list of 24 leading candidates: the winner was an image contributed by user The Cunctator, which included a quote from Thomas Hobbes's "Leviathan", Part I, Chapter VI. This second logo was adopted from December 12, 2001 to September 26, 2003, when the English Wikipedia switched to Paul Stansifer's contest-winning "puzzle ball" logo.

Wikipedia second logo 2001
Wikipedia, header with new logo (December 12, 2001 - «over 18,000 articles»)

Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger
Wikipedia founders: Jimmy Donal "Jimbo" Wales (Huntsville, August 7, 1966) and Lawrence Mark "Larry" Sanger (Bellevue, July 16, 1968)

English Wikipedia reaches 5,000,000 articles in 2015
English Wikipedia celebrates five million articles (November 1, 2015)

FV News: The first close above 6,000 points achieved by the Nasdaq

April 25, 2017 - NEW YORK CITY, USA

The first close above 6,000 points achieved by the Nasdaq Composite: Tuesday, April 25, 2017, for the first time ever.

First Versions: Nasdaq


IKEA logo 1950
IKEA logo 1950
Name: "IKEA"

Category: Home - Office - School

Subcategory: Furniture, home accessories

Founder: Ingvar Kamprad

Founded: July 12, 1943 - Älmhult, Sweden

First opening: Oct. 28, 1958 - Älmhult, Sweden

Features: Originally, IKEA sold mail-order products such as pens, wallets, picture frames, table runners, watches, jewellery and nylon stockings. Furniture was introduced in 1948, IKEA design in 1955, and the first store opened in 1958.

Interesting facts: The company's name is an acronym that consists of the initials of Ingvar Kamprad (its founder), Elmtaryd (the farm where he grew up), and Agunnaryd (his hometown in Småland, southern Sweden). The first commercial business started in 1943 as a mail-order business selling pencils, postcards, and other merchandise. In 1948 furniture is introduced in the IKEA business as a complement to the general merchandise. This is a success, and Ingvar Kamprad starts exploring innovative solutions such as furniture design, self-assembly and advertising. In 1951 the first annual IKEA furniture catalog is published in Sweden, and two years later a showroom opens in Älmhult. In 1955 the IKEA business starts designing its own furniture. Over time, flat packaging and self-assembly become part of the concept. On October 28, 1958 the first IKEA store opens in Älmhult, Sweden. In the 1960s the international expansion of the IKEA business begins, with stablishments of small start-up stores in Norway and in Denmark.

Quote (Ingvar Kamprad): «Only while sleeping one makes no mistakes»

Property: © IKEA - © Inter IKEA Systems B.V.

Official website:

IKEA catalog 1948-49
IKEA, the very first catalog: "Ikéa-Nytt" / IKEA News (1948-49)

IKEA catalog 1949-50 cover
IKEA catalog 1949-50 inside - A
IKEA catalog 1949-50 inside - B
IKEA, the second catalog "Ikéa-Nytt" / IKEA News, cover and two random pages (1949-50)

IKEA catalog 1951
IKEA, the first furniture catalog (1951)

IKEA first showroom 1953
IKEA, the first showroom (Älmhult 1953)

IKEA first store in the world 1958
IKEA, the first store (Älmhult 1958)

IKEA first store 1959
IKEA first store 1959 - interior
IKEA, the first store (Älmhult 1959)

Ingvar Feodor Kamprad, IKEA founder
Ingvar Feodor Kamprad (Ljungby, March 30, 1926), the Swedish entrepreneur who founded IKEA, in front of the world's first IKEA store opened in Älmhult 1958.

IKEA Museum
IKEA Museum and IKEA logo evolution
IKEA Museum inside
IKEA Museum: opened in June 2016, it is located in the original building that housed the first IKEA store, which opened in 1958 and closed in 2012 when the new store opened in Älmhult.

Maybelline (mascara)

Maybelline logo 1917
Maybelline logo 1917
Name: "Maybelline"

Categories: Beauty, Fashion

Subcategory: Mascara

Inventor: Thomas Lyle Williams

First producer: Maybell Laboratories (founded by Thomas Lyle Williams in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 - renamed Maybelline in 1923)

Production start: 1917 - Chicago, Illinois, USA

First price: 75 cents

Features: The exact composition of the early Maybelline cake mascara is unknown, but it was most likely a sodium stearate cake mascara. Maybelline came in two shades, black (containing lamp black) and brown (containing iron oxides). The box included a rectangular cake of product stamped with the name Maybelline, a small bristle brush and a mirror attached to the inside of the lid. The product was applied by first wetting the cake, then using a small brush to lift and apply the colour to the eyebrows and eyelashes.

Interesting facts: Thomas Lyle Williams, a young entrepreneur from Chicago, noticed his older sister Mabel applying a mixture of Vaseline, ash and coal dust to her eyebrows to enhance her eyes. Inspired by the potential of her homespun solution, Thomas used a chemistry set to make a better one, but his first attempt was unsuccessful. So he commissioned Park-Davis, a wholesale drug manufacturing company, to make a suitable product for sale. This first product was named "Lash-Brow-Ine". In 1915 Thomas Williams founded Maybell Laboratories - so named after his sister Mabel, and began to advertise and sell his invention as a mail-order product. In 1917, with the assistance of Park-Davis, he began production and sale of a cake eyelash and eyebrow beautifier: this new product was named "Maybelline". After losing a trademark dispute in 1920, Williams could no longer use the name Lash-Brow-Ine, and Maybelline took its place. In the 1920s promotion play an important role in the success of the company, with a lot of advertising featured famous actresses such as Phyllis Haver, Ethel Clayton, Viola Dana, Ruth Roland and Natalie Moorhead. In the same years, the company expands beyond Maybelline cake mascara by adding a waterproof liquid version (1925), eyebrow pencils and eye shadow (1929). In 1996 the company was acquired by L'Oreal, and in 2001 became "Maybelline New York".

Quote (Thomas Lyle Williams): «What if I told you every woman could have a bit of that beauty in her own life? Is that so wrong?»

Property: © Maybelline Co. - © Maybelline New York - © L'Oréal

Product website:

Lash-Brow-Ine 1915
Lash-Brow-Ine ad 1915
Maybelline, first packaging and first advertisement for "Lash-Brow-Ine", Maybell Laboratories' first product and precursor to Maybelline mascara (ad. from The Green Book Magazine, Chicago, Illinois, December 1915).

Maybelline cake mascara 1917 - top
Maybelline cake mascara 1917 - inside
Maybelline cake mascara 1917 - brush
Maybelline, first cake mascara (1917)

Maybelline ad 1920
Maybelline advertisement (The Meyer Brothers Druggist, Saint Louis, Missouri, January 1920)

Maybelline ad 1920 - Viola Dana
Maybelline advertisement with American film actress Viola Dana (Photoplay Magazine, New York City, July 1920)

Maybelline ad 1920 - Ruth Roland
Maybelline advertisement with American film actress Ruth Roland (Photoplay Magazine, New York City, July 1920)

Maybelline liquid mascara 1925
Maybelline waterproof liquid mascara, first packaging and advertisement (1925)

Maybelline eye shadow and eyebrow pencils ad 1929
Maybelline, advertisement for eye shadow and eyebrow pencils introduced in 1929 (Photoplay Magazine, New York City, February 1930)

Maybelline cake mascara 1930s
Maybelline, new packaging for cake mascara introduced in early 1930s

Maybelline cake mascara 10-cent box 1932 - top
Maybelline cake mascara 10-cent box 1932 - inside
Maybelline, cake mascara 10-cent box (1932). During the Great Depression, Maybelline introduced a special smaller version of the original 75-cent box of cake mascara.

Maybelline ad 1934
Maybelline cake mascara gold metal box 1934
Maybelline, advertisement and packaging for cake mascara «in the new, ultrasmart gold and scarlet metal case» (ad. from Photoplay Magazine, New York City, April 1934).

Thomas Lyle Williams
Thomas Lyle Williams (Morganfield, 1896 - Los Angeles, Sept. 26, 1976), inventor of Maybelline mascara and founder of Maybelline Laboratories.

Maybelline 100th anniversary
Maybelline New York celebrates its 100th anniversary (1915-2015)