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Astérix (comics)

Astérix logo 1959
Astérix logo 1959
Strip title: "Astérix le Gaulois"

Category: Comics

Genres: Adventure, Comedy, Satire

--- René Goscinny (writer)
--- Albert Uderzo (illustrator)

Country of origin: France

First format: Strip on French weekly comic magazine "Pilote"

Teaser issue: Early October 1959 - Pilote No. 0 / page 20 of 32

First issue: October 29, 1959 - Pilote No. 1 / page 20 of 32 (serial)

First editor: Société d'Edition Pilote - Paris, France

Background: «We are in 50 BC. All Gaul is occupied by the Romans. All? No! Because a village populated by irreducible Gauls still resists the invader. And life is not easy for the garrisons of Roman legionaries of the entrenched camps of Babaorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Petibonum...» (from the map of Gaul legend opening the Astérix volumes). This Gallic village resists the invader thanks to a magic potion prepared by the druid Panoramix (eng. Getafix), which temporarily gives superhuman strength to who drinks.

Main characters (in order of appearance):
--- Astérix (eng. Asterix), first appearance in the story "Astérix le Gaulois", Pilote magazine No. 1, October 29, 1959. Astérix is the titular hero of the series, a generously-mustachioed Gaul warrior born in 85 BC. Small and thin, frail, Asterix is physically far from the stereotypes of the comics hero. Its distinctive dress consists of a black top, red trousers, a sword worn on the side and a helmet adorned with two pens that, according to their direction, reveal his mood. His name derived from "astérisque", meaning "asterisk", from the Greek word meaning "star", as the star of the series.
--- Obélix (eng. Obelix), first appearance (along with Astérix) in the story "Astérix le Gaulois", Pilote magazine No. 1, October 29, 1959. Obélix is Asterix's closest friend and works as a menhir sculptor and delivery man. He is a tall, obese and ravenous, with a phenomenal strength acquired when he fell into Panoramix's magic potion cauldron as a boy. He wears trousers vertical white and blue stripes, stripped to the waist. His name derived from "obelisk", a massive monument, or the typographical symbol sometimes used to indicate a second footnote if the first footnote is indicated by an asterisk.
--- Jules César (eng. Julius Caesar), first appearance (as well as Astérix and Obélix) in the story "Astérix le Gaulois", Pilote magazine No. 1, October 29, 1959. The character of Julius Caesar is a consistent but satirical representation of the historical figure of the same name former Roman consul, conqueror of Gaul.
--- Panoramix (eng. Getafix), first appearance in the story "Astérix le Gaulois", Pilote magazine No. 3, November 12, 1959. Panoramix is the village druid: tall with a white beard, he is the only one to possess the recipe of the magic potion.
--- Abraracourcix (eng. Vitalstatistix), first appearance in the story "Astérix le Gaulois", Pilote No. 6, December 3, 1959. Abraracourcix is the chief of the "village des fous" (fools' village). He is a middle-aged, bigbellied man with red hair, pigtails and a huge moustache.
--- Assurancetourix (eng. Cacofonix), first appearance in the story "Astérix le Gaulois", Pilote No. 6, December 3, 1959. Assurancetourix is the village bard. He loves singing and playing musical instruments like lyre, bagpipes, drum and a Celtic trumpet... but his performances are unbearable.
--- Idéfix (eng. Dogmatix), first appearance in the story "Le Tour de Gaule d'Astérix", Pilote magazine No. 179, March 28, 1963. Idéfix is Obelix's pet dog, a small white dog of unknown breed, accidentally met for the first time in this story.

Features: The duo René Goscinny (author) - Albert Uderzo (illustrator) formed in the early 1950s and quickly led many projects together. In 1959, the advertiser François Clauteaux decided to create a new magazine for children, funded by Radio Luxembourg and titled "Pilote". There were only three months until the trial edition of Pilote was due out, and the two authors were really under pressure: they had to create a completely original comic strip series based on French culture. Finally, they decided on the period of the Gauls. Within a few hours, they created the Gallic village and its inhabitants. René Goscinny imagines a wily character in the small form, taking the opposite of the usual comics hero; Uderzo adds a strong but dim companion to which Goscinny agreed. Astérix and Obélix are born. In early October 1959, the strip was tested in the teaser issue Pilote No. 0, around 200 copies printed. Astérix and Obélix made their first official appearance on October 29, 1959 in Pilote No. 1: around 300,000 copies, immediately sold out. The first story, "Astérix le Gaulois", was published weekly in Pilote magazine from No. 1 until No. 38 (July 14, 1960), with a rate of one/two pages per week. In 1961, the entire story was collected in the volume "Astérix le Gaulois", first of a series titled "Collection Pilote", by editor Dargaud.

Interesting facts: The launch of Pilote magazine was a success, as well as the adventures of Astérix; despite this, in 1960 the financial backing for the magazine ceased, and Pilote was taken over by publisher Georges Dargaud, for a symbolic franc. When Goscinny died in 1977, Uderzo continued the series alone, until September 2011, when he retired from drawing.

Introduction (translated from the first strip): «Astérix mischievously embodies all the virtues of 'our ancestors the Gauls'. The humor of René Goscinny and Uderzo will make you love this little mustached warrior, new character in comics».

Property: © Dargaud - © Hachette - © Les éditions Albert René / Goscinny-Uderzo

Reference website:

Astérix early sketches by Albert Uderzo 1959
Astérix and Obélix, early sketches by Albert Uderzo (1959)

Astérix ad 1959
Astérix, first print advertising (1959). The Radio Télé Luxembourg Almanach announces the imminent arrival of Pilote, a weekly comic magazine that covers the adventures of Astérix.

Pilote magazine No. 0 / October 1959
Astérix le Gaulois, the first strip was tested in Pilote magazine No. 0 (early October 1959, around 200 copies). Apart from a reference to the Astérix strip (bottom right), the cover shows a photo of a large group of collaborators, but most were just friends of the authors, in front row: writer René Goscinny (4th from left, with jacket in hand) and illustrator Albert Uderzo (6th).
Pilote magazine No. 0 / October 1959 - detail

Pilote magazine No. 1 / October 29, 1959
Astérix le Gaulois, the first strip made its debut in Pilote magazine No. 1 (October 29, 1959, around 300,000 copies, immediately sold out).

Astérix, the first ever strip
Astérix le Gaulois, the first strip (October 29, 1959). Promoted through Pilote magazine No. 0 in early October 1959, the first story was launched as serial in Pilote No. 1.

Astérix and Obélix, first ever appearance
Astérix and Obélix, the first appearance (Pilote magazine No. 1, October 29, 1959)

Astérix characters in their first appearances
Astérix, characters in their first appearances. Jules César (Julius Caesar), Panoramix (Getafix the druid), Abraracourcix (Vitalstatistix the chief), Assurancetourix (Cacofonix the bard), and Idéfix (Dogmatix the dog).

Astérix, first full cover in Pilote magazine
Astérix and Obélix, first full cover in Pilote magazine (No. 21, March 17, 1960)

Astérix le Gaulois, first volume 1961
Astérix le Gaulois, first volume (Dargaud, 1961). This volume collects the first story distributed weekly in Pilote magazine from No. 1 (October 29, 1959) until No. 38 (July 14, 1960).

Albert Uderzo and René Goscinny
The creators of Astérix comics. Left: Alberto Aleandro Uderzo (Fismes, April 25, 1927), comic book artist and scriptwriter. Right: René Goscinny (Paris, Aug. 14, 1926 - Nov. 5, 1977), comics editor and writer.

Astérix and Obélix 50th Anniversary
Astérix comics, the 50th anniversary (1959-2009). The 34th volume of the book series, released by Les Éditions Albert René on October 22, 2009, celebrates the first strip with a collection of short stories, all linked by the theme of Astérix's anniversary. Designed and written by Albert Uderzo, "L’Anniversaire d’Astérix et Obélix" also includes stories which were created jointly with René Goscinny.

FV News: The first human-pig hybrid created by scientists

January 26, 2017 - SAN DIEGO, California, USA

The first human-pig chimera step toward custom organs.

The first successful human-animal hybrid embryo has been announced by an international team of scientists on Thursday, January 26, 2017.
These hybrids, known as chimeras, are controversial, but they could be key to the future of organ replacement by enabling human organs to be grown outside of human bodies and inside of animal ones. The scientists first experimented with growing mouse-rat hybrids, when a mouse pancreas grown in a rat was transplanted back into a mouse; the mouse was cured of diabetes as a result. The scientists then tried to create a rat-pig hybrid, but the effort failed due to the major genetic differences between the two species. Pigs proved to be the perfect match for humans, however, because the two species have similarly sized organs, making it more likely that a pig could grow functioning human organs.
The team, led by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies located in La Jolla, San Diego, California, have reported their research in the journal "Cell".

FV News: The first close above 20,000 points achieved by the Dow Jones

January 25, 2017 - NEW YORK CITY, USA

The first close above 20,000 points achieved by the Dow Jones Industrial Average: Wednesday, January 25, 2017, for the first time ever.

Rolls-Royce: 1st model ever

Rolls-Royce logo 1904
Rolls-Royce logo 1904
Name: "Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A"

Category: Cars

Subcategory: Luxury car

Designer: Sir Henry Royce (on Barker body)

Producer: Rolls-Royce Ltd. (founded by Charles Stewart Rolls and Sir Frederick Henry Royce on March 15, 1906, as the result of a partnership formed on December 23, 1904)

Prototypes made in: 1904 - Cooke Street, Hulme, Manchester, England - 3 "Royce 10 hp" prototypes made

Production start: November 1904 - Cooke Street, Hulme, Manchester, England - Debut at the Paris Salon in December 9 to 25, 1904 - 16 "Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A" cars made

Discontinued: 1906

First price: 395 GBP

Features: Model "Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A", 1904. Engine configuration: Straight 2. Engine location: Front, longitudinally mounted. Engine construction: cast-iron block and head. Engine size: 1,809 cc / 110.4 cu in. Engine bore/stroke: 95.3 mm (3.8 in) / 127.0 mm (5 in). Valvetrain: 2 valves / cylinder, OHV / Side-valve. Fuel feed: Royce Carburettor. Aspiration: Naturally aspirated. Engine power: 12 bhp / 9 KW @ 1,000 rpm. Chassis: Body on steel ladder frame. Suspension (fr/r): live axle, semi-elliptic leaf springs. Brakes: rear drum brakes. Gearbox: 3 speed manual. Drive: Rear wheel drive. Weight: 740 kilo / 1,631 lbs. Wheelbase: 1,905 mm (75.0 in). Length: 3,175 mm (125.0 in). Width: 1,400 mm (55.1 in). Power to weight: 0.02 bhp / kg. Top speed: 63 km/h (39 mph).

Interesting facts: Rolls-Royce grew from the electrical and mechanical business established by Henry Royce in 1884. The first Royce motor car engine was tested on September 16, 1903 and on April 1, 1904 Royce drove his first 10 hp prototype out of the Cooke Street factory, Hulme, Manchester. On May 4 of that year he met Charles Rolls, whose company sold quality cars in London. Agreement was reached that Royce Limited would manufacture a range of cars to be exclusively sold by CS Rolls & Co. Two more prototypes were built in 1904, for a total of three. Rolls-Royce cars made their debut at the Paris Salon, December 9 to 25, 1904. The partnership was officially formed on December 23, 1904. Initially, Charles Rolls and Henry Royce decided to make 20 "Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A" models, but only 16 were finally constructed, the last in 1906. On March 15, 1906, Rolls and Royce formalised their partnership by creating Rolls-Royce Limited, with Royce appointed chief engineer.

Quote (Sir Henry Royce): «Strive for perfection in everything we do. Take the best that exists and make it better. When it does not exist, design it. Accept nothing nearly right or good enough».

Property: © Rolls-Royce Ltd. - © Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Ltd.

Producer website:

Royce 10 hp prototype chassis 1904
Royce 10 hp prototype, first chassis (1904, Cooke Street factory)

Royce 10 hp prototype
Royce 10 hp prototype 1904
Royce 10 hp prototype (1904, Cooke Street factory). The first petrol engine was tested on September 16, 1903, and the first prototype was completed in the Cooke Street factory in March 1904. Two more similar prototypes were built in 1904, for a total of three.

Rolls-Royce debut advertising 1904
Rolls-Royce debut advertising (November 1904)

Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A 1904 - right
Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A 1904 - left
Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A 1904 - back
Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A 1904 - front
Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A 1904 - engine
Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A 1904 - display
Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A, Rolls-Royce's first ever produced car (November 1904). These pictures show the world’s oldest surviving Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A, which came off test in November 1904 and was the third car to wear the Rolls-Royce radiator and the fourth car to carry the Rolls-Royce name. This car was selected for exhibition at the Paris Salon, December 9 to 25, 1904. It was sold by Bonhams (London-based auction house founded in 1793) on December 3, 2007, for 3,521,500 GBP, breaking two world records: the highest price ever paid at auction for both a Rolls-Royce and a veteran car (pre-1905).

Rolls-Royce advertising 1904
Rolls-Royce advertising (The Autocar magazine, Dec. 17, 1904). Top-left: 10 hp, tonneau, two cylinders, with Barker body, 395 GBP. Top-right: 10 hp, Park Phaeton, with disappearing back seat, leather hood, patent leather wings, and glass front, 436 GBP.

Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A review - 1
Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A review - 2
Rolls-Royce 10 hp Type A review (The Automotor Journal, December 3, 1904)

Rolls-Royce founders: Charles Rolls and Henry Royce
Rolls-Royce founders: Charles Stewart Rolls (Aug. 27, 1877 - July 12, 1910), motoring and aviation pioneer, and Sir Frederick Henry Royce (March 27, 1863 - April 22, 1933), engineer and car designer.

Rolls-Royce Dawn
Rolls-Royce, an advanced model: Rolls-Royce Dawn (2016)

Tomb Raider

Tomb Raider logo 1996
Tomb Raider logo 1996
Name: "Tomb Raider"

Category: Videogames

Subcategory: Puzzle-platform

Genre: Action-adventure

Developer: Core Design - Derby, England, UK

--- October 25, 1996 - Europe (Sega Saturn)
--- November 14, 1996 - North America (MS-DOS, Sega Saturn, PlayStation)
--- November 22, 1996 - Europe (MS-DOS, PlayStation)
--- January 24, 1997 - Japan (Sega Saturn)
--- February 14, 1997 - Japan (PlayStation)
--- June 1998 - Europe, North America (Microsoft Windows adaption)

Publisher: Eidos Interactive - Wimbledon, London, UK

Platforms: MS-DOS, Sega Saturn, PlayStation (1996) - Microsoft Windows (1998)

Producer: Mike Schmitt

Designer: Toby Gard

Programmers: Paul Douglas, Gavin Rummery, Jason Gosling

Graphics: Toby Gard, Heather Gibson, Neal Boyd

Writer: Vicky Arnold

Number of players: Single-player

Background and characters: Lara Croft, daughter of Lord Henshingly Croft, was raised to be an aristocrat from birth. After attending finishing school at the age of 21, Lara's marriage into wealth has seem assured, but on her way home from a skiing trip her chartered plane had crashed deep in the heart of the Himalayas. The only survivor, Lara learned how to depend on her wits to stay alive in hostile conditions a world away from her sheltered upbringing. Two weeks later, when she walked into the village of Tokakeriby her experience had had a profound effect on her. Unable to stand the claustrophobic suffocating atmosphere of upper-class British society, she realised that she was only truly alive when she was travelling alone. Over the following eight years she acquired an intimate knowledge of ancient civilizations across the globe. Her family soon disowned their prodigal daughter, and she turned to writing to fund her trips. Famed for discovering several ancient sites of profound archaeological interest she made a name for herself by publishing travel books and detailed journals of her exploits.

Music by: Nathan McCree

Features: Tomb Raider follows British archaeologist and explorer Lara Croft as she travels the world to find a mysterious artifact called "the Scion". In this 3D action game with platforming and puzzle-solving elements, the player controls Lara Croft from a third-person perspective. The camera follows Lara as she climbs, jumps, and swims through detailed environs overcoming environmental obstacles and deadly fauna. Moving through levels often involves finding spots where Lara can climb, looking for spots where Lara can use her acrobatic ability, and sliding blocks and pushing levers to solve puzzles and open passageways. Tomb Raider spans 15 levels and includes exotic places such as ancient ruins in south America, Africa and even Atlantis: the first 4 levels are set in Peru, next 5 levels in Greece, 3 in Egypt, and the last 3 in Atlantis. Each level has a number of secrets that the player can find. Lara has two basic stances: one with weapons drawn and one with her hands free. By default she carries two pistols with infinite ammo. Additional weapons include the shotgun, dual magnums and dual Uzis. Regular items to pick up include ammo, and small and large medi-packs.

Interesting facts: Tomb Raider was a highly successful video game developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive in the autumn of 1996. The original concept was born in 1993, and the game was developed by a team consisted of six people, among them Toby Gard, who is credited with the invention of the character Lara Croft, initially named Lara Cruz. Tomb Raider was one of the first true 3D titles to be undertaken by Core Design, combining for the first time platforming, puzzle solving and action sequences together. It also established the third person perspective that was used in all subsequent games.

Property: © Core Design - © Eidos Interactive - © Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd.

Product website:

Tomb Raider 1995 sketches by Toby Gard
Lara Croft 1995 sketch by Toby Gard
Tomb Raider cover 1995 sketch by Toby Gard
Tomb Raider, early sketches by designer Toby Gard (1995)

Tomb Raider 1996 box
Tomb Raider, original box with CD and instruction manual (release Oct. 25, 1996, Europe, for Sega Saturn Systems)

Tomb Raider 1996 front cover
Tomb Raider box, front cover (release Oct. 25, 1996, Europe, for Sega Saturn Systems)

Tomb Raider 1996 back cover
Tomb Raider box, back cover (release Oct. 25, 1996, Europe, for Sega Saturn Systems)

Tomb Raider 1996 CD
Tomb Raider, original Compact Disc print (release Oct. 25, 1996, Europe, for Sega Saturn Systems)

Tomb Raider, pre-launch teaser (1995)

Tomb Raider, first TV commercial (France 1996) featuring Natalie Cook, the first official model to represent Lara Croft

Tomb Raider, game intro (1996)

Tomb Raider, gameplay demo (1996)

Tomb Raider advertising 1996
Tomb Raider, French pre-launch advertising (1996)

Toby Gard
Toby Gard (1972 - Chelmsford, Essex), the computer game character designer and consultant who designed the original Tomb Raider video game in 1995 along with the character Lara Croft

Tomb Raider 20th Anniversary 2016
Square Enix celebrate Tomb Raider's 20th Anniversary (1996-2016) with new releases


Risk logo 1959
Risk logo 1959
--- "La Conquête du Monde" (1957)
--- "Risk! Continental Game" (1959)

Category: Games

Subcategory: Board games

Inventor: Albert Lamorisse

Invented in: 1957

--- France: March 23, 1954
--- UK: March 23, 1955

First producers/distributors:
--- France: Miro Company (founded in Paris in 1936 by Fred Mirowitch and Leo J. Frankenthal, acquired by Hasbro in 1986)
--- USA: Parker Brothers (founded in Medford, Massachusetts, in 1883 by George S. Parker, acquired by Hasbro in 1991)

Production start:
--- France: 1957 as "La Conquête du Monde" (The Conquest of the World)
--- USA: 1959 as "Risk! Continental Game"

First price (1959): 7.50 USD

Features (referred to the 1959 Parker Brothers' "Risk! Continental Game"): Risk is a turn-based game for 3, 4, 5 or 6 players. The game is played on a board depicting a political map of the Earth, divided into forty-two territories, which are grouped into six continents. The object of the game is to occupy every territory on the board and in so doing, eliminate all other players. Players control armies with which they attempt to capture territories from other players, with results determined by dice rolls. Equipment:
--- A. Six sets of playing pieces, each set of a different color, consisting of a box of cubes and several oblong pieces in a separate box. Each cube represents one army and the oblong pieces are equivalent to ten armies.
--- B. A playing board showing a map of the six continents, each of which is subdivided into a number of territories.
--- C. A deck of 44 cards plus one Trade-mark card which is not used in the play of the game.
--- D. Six dice, 3 of which are red and 3 of which are ivory-colored.

Interesting facts: During the 1950s, Parker Brothers formed an affiliation with the Miro Company in Paris for the manufacture and distribution of their games in France. In exchange, Parker Brothers agreed to manufacture and distribute some of Miro's games in the United States. In the summer of 1957, Mr. Boisseau of Miro approached Parker Brothers with "La Conquête du Monde" (The Conquest of the World), a game invented by French filmmaker, film producer, and writer Albert Lamorisse, best known for his award-winning short films like "Le Ballon rouge" (The red balloon, 1956). After extensive testing, the French game's rules were adapted for American tastes, and, in 1959, Parker Brothers launched "Risk! Continental Game". Through the years, the game has become a household name all around the world. In addition to the original version of 1959, a number of official variants and not-licensed clones of Risk have been produced over the years. Hasbro bought Miro Company in 1986, and subsequently Parker Brothers in 1991.

Property: © Miro Company - © Parker Brothers - © Hasbro, Inc.

Producer website:

La Conquête du Monde, box front
La Conquête du Monde, box
La Conquête du Monde, box content
La Conquête du Monde, box content zoom
La Conquête du Monde (The Conquest of the World), original version of the board game Risk (1957), invented by Albert Lamorisse, produced and distributed by Miro Company

Albert Lamorisse
Albert Lamorisse (Paris, January 13, 1922 - Karaj, June 2, 1970), the French filmmaker, film producer, and writer, who invented the board game "La Conquête du Monde" (The Conquest of the World) in 1957, original version of the game Risk. Lamorisse is best known for his award-winning short films, like "Le Ballon rouge" (The red balloon, 1956), which won numerous awards, including an Oscar for Lamorisse for the best original screenplay, and the Palme d'Or for short films at the Cannes Film Festival.

Risk first version 1959 - box front
Risk first version 1959 - box opened
Risk first version 1959 - box opened right-view
Risk first version 1959 - box content
Risk first version 1959 - box opened top-view
Risk first version 1959 - board top
Risk first version 1959 - board bottom-left
Risk first version 1959 - board bottom-right
Risk first version 1959 - cards
Risk first version 1959 - dice
Risk! Continental Game, first version of the board game Risk by Parker Brothers (1959)

Risk 1959, instruction manual
Risk, introduction to the game from the instruction manual (1959)

Risk advertising 1961
Risk advertising Christmas 1961
Risk advertising (1961)

Risk advertising 1966
Risk advertising: «He conquered the world in one afternoon!» (1966)

Risk 40th Anniversary Collector's Edition box
Risk 40th Anniversary Collector's Edition
Hasbro celebrate 40 years of Risk (1959-1999) with a Collector's Edition which features a color-enhanced board and the troop pieces made of metal rather than plastic.