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Wikipedia



Wikipedia logo 2001
Wikipedia logo 2001
Name: "Wikipedia"

Category: Internet

Subcategory: Online encyclopedias

Registered:
--- January 12, 2001 (wikipedia.com)
--- January 13, 2001 (wikipedia.org)

Official release: January 15, 2001

Developers / Founders:
--- Jimmy Wales
--- Larry Sanger

Programming languages: LAMP platform (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP)

Features: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia with the aim to allow anyone to edit articles. The name "Wikipedia" is a portmanteau of "wiki" (software that provides collaborative modification of its content and structure directly from the web browser) and "encyclopedia". Wikipedia was initially conceived as a feeder project for the Nupedia, a free online encyclopedia born ten months earlier.
The idea of creating a publicly editable encyclopedia without an editorial process (unlike Nupedia), combined with the new strategy of using the wiki platform, was the key to its success. In January 2001 Wikipedia was launched as a single English-language, and its early contributors came from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Early in Wikipedia's development, it began to expand internationally, with the creation of new namespaces, each with a distinct set of usernames. The first subdomain created for a non-English Wikipedia was "deutsche.wikipedia.com" (March 16, 2001). By the end of 2001, Wikipedia had grown to approximately 20,000 articles and 18 language editions.

Interesting facts: In 1996, American internet entrepreneurs Jimmy Wales (later Wikipedia's co-founder), Tim Shell, and Michael Davis founded Bomis, a web-advertising portal. In 2000 Jimmy Wales hired Larry Sanger (later second Wikipedia's founder), a graduate philosophy student, to help him develop the first project about a free online encyclopedia built by volunteers: Nupedia went online in March of that year, supported by Bomis' resources. Nupedia was characterized by an extensive peer-review process, designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to that of professional encyclopedias; so Wales and Sanger discussed various ways to create content more rapidly. A computer programmer named Ben Kovitz suggest Sanger to introduce the so-called "wiki" platform, a software that allows publishers to contribute simultaneously and incrementally. In five days: this new project was proposed on the Nupedia mailing list, Sanger gave it a name, domain names ".com" and ".org" were registered, and on Monday 15 January 2001 Wikipedia was formally announced. Two days later an appeal for volunteers to engage in content creation was made by Sanger to the Nupedia mailing list, and the project began to receive its first participants.

Slogan (2001): «The Free Encyclopedia"

Property: © Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.

Website: https://www.wikipedia.org

Nupedia announces Wikipedia
Wikipedia, first announcement on the home page of its predecessor Nupedia (January 17, 2001). Nupedia, launched on March 9, 2000, had a seven-step approval process to control content of articles before being posted, rather than live wiki-based updating, and authors were expected to have expert knowledge. Before it ceased operating (September 26, 2003), only 25 articles were approved and published.

Larry Sanger announces Wikipedia
Wikipedia, announcement by co-founder Larry Sanger on Nupedia mailing list (January 17, 2001): «Wikipedia is up! http://www.wikipedia.com Humor me. Go there and add a little article. It will take all of five or ten minutes. --Larry».

Wikipedia, first home page 2001
Wikipedia, first home page (screenshot March 31, 2001). Eleven weeks after launch, the introduction reads: «Welcome to Wikipedia! We're writing a complete encyclopedia from scratch, collaboratively. We started work in January 2001. We've got over 3,000 pages already. We want to make over 100,000. So, let's get to work! Write a little (or a lot) about you know!»

Wikipedia, first two logos 2001
Wikipedia, first two logos (2001, left January, right December). Wikipedia's first logo was an image that was originally submitted by Bjørn Smestad for a Nupedia logo competition which took place in 2000. The logo included a quote from the preface of "Euclid and his Modern Rivals" by Lewis Carroll. The second logo was chosen in the first Wikipedia logo contest, which took place from November to December 2001, from a list of 24 leading candidates: the winner was an image contributed by user The Cunctator, which included a quote from Thomas Hobbes's "Leviathan", Part I, Chapter VI. This second logo was adopted from December 12, 2001 to September 26, 2003, when the English Wikipedia switched to Paul Stansifer's contest-winning "puzzle ball" logo.

Wikipedia second logo 2001
Wikipedia, header with new logo (December 12, 2001 - «over 18,000 articles»)

Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger
Wikipedia founders: Jimmy Donal "Jimbo" Wales (Huntsville, August 7, 1966) and Lawrence Mark "Larry" Sanger (Bellevue, July 16, 1968)

English Wikipedia reaches 5,000,000 articles in 2015
English Wikipedia celebrates five million articles (November 1, 2015)

FV News: The first close above 6,000 points achieved by the Nasdaq

April 25, 2017 - NEW YORK CITY, USA

The first close above 6,000 points achieved by the Nasdaq Composite: Tuesday, April 25, 2017, for the first time ever.

First Versions: Nasdaq

IKEA



IKEA logo 1950
IKEA logo 1950
Name: "IKEA"

Category: Home - Office - School

Subcategory: Furniture, home accessories

Founder: Ingvar Kamprad

Founded: July 12, 1943 - Älmhult, Sweden

First opening: Oct. 28, 1958 - Älmhult, Sweden

Features: Originally, IKEA sold mail-order products such as pens, wallets, picture frames, table runners, watches, jewellery and nylon stockings. Furniture was introduced in 1948, IKEA design in 1955, and the first store opened in 1958.

Interesting facts: The company's name is an acronym that consists of the initials of Ingvar Kamprad (its founder), Elmtaryd (the farm where he grew up), and Agunnaryd (his hometown in Småland, southern Sweden). The first commercial business started in 1943 as a mail-order business selling pencils, postcards, and other merchandise. In 1948 furniture is introduced in the IKEA business as a complement to the general merchandise. This is a success, and Ingvar Kamprad starts exploring innovative solutions such as furniture design, self-assembly and advertising. In 1951 the first annual IKEA furniture catalog is published in Sweden, and two years later a showroom opens in Älmhult. In 1955 the IKEA business starts designing its own furniture. Over time, flat packaging and self-assembly become part of the concept. On October 28, 1958 the first IKEA store opens in Älmhult, Sweden. In the 1960s the international expansion of the IKEA business begins, with stablishments of small start-up stores in Norway and in Denmark.

Quote (Ingvar Kamprad): «Only while sleeping one makes no mistakes»

Property: © IKEA - © Inter IKEA Systems B.V.

Official website: http://www.ikea.com

IKEA catalog 1948-49
IKEA, the very first catalog: "Ikéa-Nytt" / IKEA News (1948-49)

IKEA catalog 1949-50 cover
IKEA catalog 1949-50 inside - A
IKEA catalog 1949-50 inside - B
IKEA, the second catalog "Ikéa-Nytt" / IKEA News, cover and two random pages (1949-50)

IKEA catalog 1951
IKEA, the first furniture catalog (1951)

IKEA first showroom 1953
IKEA, the first showroom (Älmhult 1953)

IKEA first store in the world 1958
IKEA, the first store (Älmhult 1958)

IKEA first store 1959
IKEA first store 1959 - interior
IKEA, the first store (Älmhult 1959)

Ingvar Feodor Kamprad, IKEA founder
Ingvar Feodor Kamprad (Ljungby, March 30, 1926), the Swedish entrepreneur who founded IKEA, in front of the world's first IKEA store opened in Älmhult 1958.

IKEA Museum
IKEA Museum and IKEA logo evolution
IKEA Museum inside
IKEA Museum: opened in June 2016, it is located in the original building that housed the first IKEA store, which opened in 1958 and closed in 2012 when the new store opened in Älmhult.

Maybelline (mascara)



Maybelline logo 1917
Maybelline logo 1917
Name: "Maybelline"

Categories: Beauty, Fashion

Subcategory: Mascara

Inventor: Thomas Lyle Williams

First producer: Maybell Laboratories (founded by Thomas Lyle Williams in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 - renamed Maybelline in 1923)

Production start: 1917 - Chicago, Illinois, USA

First price: 75 cents

Features: The exact composition of the early Maybelline cake mascara is unknown, but it was most likely a sodium stearate cake mascara. Maybelline came in two shades, black (containing lamp black) and brown (containing iron oxides). The box included a rectangular cake of product stamped with the name Maybelline, a small bristle brush and a mirror attached to the inside of the lid. The product was applied by first wetting the cake, then using a small brush to lift and apply the colour to the eyebrows and eyelashes.

Interesting facts: Thomas Lyle Williams, a young entrepreneur from Chicago, noticed his older sister Mabel applying a mixture of Vaseline, ash and coal dust to her eyebrows to enhance her eyes. Inspired by the potential of her homespun solution, Thomas used a chemistry set to make a better one, but his first attempt was unsuccessful. So he commissioned Park-Davis, a wholesale drug manufacturing company, to make a suitable product for sale. This first product was named "Lash-Brow-Ine". In 1915 Thomas Williams founded Maybell Laboratories - so named after his sister Mabel, and began to advertise and sell his invention as a mail-order product. In 1917, with the assistance of Park-Davis, he began production and sale of a cake eyelash and eyebrow beautifier: this new product was named "Maybelline". After losing a trademark dispute in 1920, Williams could no longer use the name Lash-Brow-Ine, and Maybelline took its place. In the 1920s promotion play an important role in the success of the company, with a lot of advertising featured famous actresses such as Phyllis Haver, Ethel Clayton, Viola Dana, Ruth Roland and Natalie Moorhead. In the same years, the company expands beyond Maybelline cake mascara by adding a waterproof liquid version (1925), eyebrow pencils and eye shadow (1929). In 1996 the company was acquired by L'Oreal, and in 2001 became "Maybelline New York".

Quote (Thomas Lyle Williams): «What if I told you every woman could have a bit of that beauty in her own life? Is that so wrong?»

Property: © Maybelline Co. - © Maybelline New York - © L'Oréal

Product website: http://www.maybelline.com

Lash-Brow-Ine 1915
Lash-Brow-Ine ad 1915
Maybelline, first packaging and first advertisement for "Lash-Brow-Ine", Maybell Laboratories' first product and precursor to Maybelline mascara (ad. from The Green Book Magazine, Chicago, Illinois, December 1915).

Maybelline cake mascara 1917 - top
Maybelline cake mascara 1917 - inside
Maybelline cake mascara 1917 - brush
Maybelline, first cake mascara (1917)

Maybelline ad 1920
Maybelline advertisement (The Meyer Brothers Druggist, Saint Louis, Missouri, January 1920)

Maybelline ad 1920 - Viola Dana
Maybelline advertisement with American film actress Viola Dana (Photoplay Magazine, New York City, July 1920)

Maybelline ad 1920 - Ruth Roland
Maybelline advertisement with American film actress Ruth Roland (Photoplay Magazine, New York City, July 1920)

Maybelline liquid mascara 1925
Maybelline waterproof liquid mascara, first packaging and advertisement (1925)

Maybelline eye shadow and eyebrow pencils ad 1929
Maybelline, advertisement for eye shadow and eyebrow pencils introduced in 1929 (Photoplay Magazine, New York City, February 1930)

Maybelline cake mascara 1930s
Maybelline, new packaging for cake mascara introduced in early 1930s

Maybelline cake mascara 10-cent box 1932 - top
Maybelline cake mascara 10-cent box 1932 - inside
Maybelline, cake mascara 10-cent box (1932). During the Great Depression, Maybelline introduced a special smaller version of the original 75-cent box of cake mascara.

Maybelline ad 1934
Maybelline cake mascara gold metal box 1934
Maybelline, advertisement and packaging for cake mascara «in the new, ultrasmart gold and scarlet metal case» (ad. from Photoplay Magazine, New York City, April 1934).

Thomas Lyle Williams
Thomas Lyle Williams (Morganfield, 1896 - Los Angeles, Sept. 26, 1976), inventor of Maybelline mascara and founder of Maybelline Laboratories.

Maybelline 100th anniversary
Maybelline New York celebrates its 100th anniversary (1915-2015)

Heineken



Heineken label 1954
Heineken label 1954
Name: "Heineken"

Category: Drink

Subcategory: Beer

Producer: Heineken's Bierbrouwerij Maatschappij NV (founded by Gerard Adriaan Heineken in Amsterdam on February 15, 1864)

Production start: 1873 - Amsterdam, Holland

Original recipe: Since its origins, Heineken beer is brewed in a natural brewing process, with no additives. It contains water, barley malt, hops and the unique Heineken A-yeast for the fermentation.

Gerard Adriaan Heineken
Gerard Adriaan Heineken
Amsterdam, Sept. 28, 1841
- March 18, 1893,
founder of Heineken & Co.
Interesting facts: On February 15, 1864, Gerard Adriaan Heineken bought De Hooiberg (The Haystack), an old brewery and well-known Amsterdam establishment dating from 1592.
In 1869 Gerard Heineken decided to switch from traditional top fermentation to the Bavarian method of bottom fermentation, a totally different technique that produces a clearer, purer beer, which keeps longer.
On January 11, 1873, Heineken's Bierbrouwerij Maatschappij NV (HBM) was established, and Gerard Heineken was appointed President.
A second brewery was opened in Rotterdam in 1874.
In 1886 Dr. Hartog Elion, a pupil of the French chemist Louis Pasteur, developed the "A-yeast" in the Heineken laboratory. This yeast is still the key ingredient of Heineken beer.

Quote (Gerard Heineken): «A good product is recommended by its use alone»

Property: © Heineken N.V.

Product website: http://www.heineken.com

Heineken brewery in Amsterdam, 1867
Heineken, the Amsterdam brewery (1867)

Heineken labels 1870s
Heineken, early labels from the 1870 "Beiersch" beer

Heineken ad 1870s
Heineken, advertisement for De Hooiberg (The Haystack), by C. Greive (ca. 1870)

Heineken labels 1880-90s
Heineken, early labels with the distinctive five point star and green color. Over the years, the names of prizes won by Heineken have been added to the label: a gold medal at the International Exposition in Paris in 1875, the "Diplome d'Honneur" in Amsterdam in 1883, followed by the "Grand Prix" at the 1889 World's Fair in Paris.

Heineken ad 1890s
Heineken, advertisement for Export beer (ca. 1890)

Heineken drays 1900s
Heineken lorry 1900s
Heineken, two horse-drawn drays and one of the first lorries (ca. 1900)

Heineken price list 1900s
Heineken, price list from Die Port van Cleve Hotel (early 1900s)

Early Heineken beer bottle
Heineken, an early beer bottle

Heineken 150th anniversary
Heineken celebrates its 150th Anniversary (1864-2014). To commemorate 150 years of Heineken's existence, in 2014 three of the brewery's landmark historical buildings were reproduced in handmade ceramic miniatures, as a gift for all employees of Heineken worldwide.